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公開日:2017年02月02日 カテゴリー:WEBマーケティング用語 タグ:,

hawthorne effect



それまでは、両方のグループの生産性が再び並行して上昇しました。調査官は、次に、新しい電球がより明るいことを彼らに伝えながら、労働者の視野の中で毎日電球を交換した。女性は、新しい球根が取り除かれた球根と同一であっても、変更に好意的にコメントし、作業量を増加させた。この操作と他の操作は、被験者が信じていたものに関連する生産性は疑いようがなく、客観的な状況の変化ではないことを示しました。これらの特定の実験は書かれていないが、元の研究報告書は失われているが、それらの唯一の現代的な説明は、貿易雑誌のいくつかの段落に由来するものであるが、これらは少なくとも、普及した伝説の背後にある主な事実であるようである。この論文では、テイラーの教義に従い、急速に工業化している米国で行われたこれらの実験の社会的、政治的および産業的背景と、ヨーロッパからの工場への移民の巨大な移民とを調べる。Hawthorneの実験は、1932年の不況の中で工場が壊滅的に崩壊し、Western Electricの売上高が1929年の4億1,100万ドルから7,000万ドルに減少し、労働力の80%が雇用を失うまで、何年も続いた。

‘The consumer of knowledge can never know what a dicky thing knowledge is until he has tried to produce it F.The Hawthorne effect is a familiar story to occupational physicians given that it refers to experiments with improved factory lighting which increased the productivity of workers. Incrementally increasing the level of lighting brought about increased production until someone reduced the level below baseline and output increased still further. The moral of the Hawthorne effect is that people change their behavior when they think you are watching it and this principle has wider implications in medicine to describe the improved health of control groups.

How many of us know the origins of the fable? Gale recounts the story and its background in a fascinating piece of occupational medicine archaeology: The story relates to the first of many experiments performed at the Hawthorne works of the Western Electric Company in Chicago from November 1924 onwards. The original aim was to test claims that brighter lighting increased productivity, but uncontrolled studies proved uninterpretable. The workers were then divided into matched control and test groups and, to the surprise of the investigators, productivity rose equally in both. In the next experiment, lighting was reduced progressively for the test group until, at 1.4 foot candles, have complained that they could not see what they were doing.

Until then the productivity of both groups had once again risen in parallel. The investigators next changed the light bulbs daily in the sight of the workers, telling them that the new bulbs were brighter. The women commented favourably on the change and increased their workrate, even if the new bulbs were identical to those that had been removed. This and other manoeuvres showed beyond doubt that productivity related to what the subjects believed, and not to objective changes in their circumstances. These at least seem to be the main facts behind the popular legend, although these particular experiments were never written up, the original study reports were lost, and the only contemporary account of them derives from a few paragraphs in a trade journal’. This paper examines the social, political and industrial background to these experiments which took place in a rapidly industrializing United States following the doctrine of Taylor and with huge immigration from Europe to man the factories. The Hawthorne experiments continued for a number of years before the factory collapsed catastrophically in the depression of 1932, Western Electric’s turnover reduced from $411 million in 1929 to $70 million and 80% of the workforce lost their jobs.